Swing History 101: The Golden Age of Harlem Lindy Hop (1935-1942)


Updated 4/19/17 with additional socio-economic details.

Setting “The Scene”

As we discussed in the last episode, as the ’20s passed into the ’30s the new “swing” sound was evolving away from the hot jazz of the 1920s. Bands were smoothing out their rhythm into a steady, rolling-thunder beat. Drum sets were getting more drums and cymbals, and bands were getting more musicians and creating sections with them. They were also using more written arrangements that countered the sections off of each other in growing sophistication.

In the 1930s, the neighborhoods above New York’s Central Park, known as Harlem, became a hot spot for the new swing sound. Harlem was a primarily Black neighborhood, though its East side also had strong Italian and Hispanic communities. Though 1920s Harlem was a pilgrimage for Black intellectuals and artists, the early ’30s Depression brought high rates of poverty.

Though it greatly affected the lives of its residents, the Depression didn’t stop Harlem from swinging. In many ways, the joyful swing music and dancing of the area was a welcome relief from the hard times. Clubs and bandstands littered the area, making it a destination not only for locals but for people all over the five boroughs and tourists from outside the city. The biggest of these clubs was called the Savoy Ballroom, at 141st Street and 7th Avenue. It took up an entire block length and had a sign that read “The Home of Happy Feet.” This integrated ballroom (which was very rare in America at this time) was the mecca of Harlem social dancing night life and where visitors of all races expected to see the Lindy Hop being done by the best of the best. Many tourists, knowing of the Savoy Hotel in London, pronounced it the “SAV-oy.” But if you were in the know, you pronounced it “Sa-VOY.”

The first real “King of Swing” was a short, slumped, slightly disfigured band leader who was barely visible behind his giant bass drum. But he never let his size keep him from being heard. His name was Chick Webb, and he led the bandstand at the Savoy.

“A Night-Club Map of Harlem” (1932) by E Simms Campbell

The Second Generation

The first great generation of Lindy Hoppers danced in front of Chick’s drums at the Savoy in the late 20s and throughout the 30s — dancers like Mattie Pernell, Shorty George and “Big Bea.” A spot near the stage where tourists and locals alike could gape at the best dancers showing off was known as “The Corner” (the name “The Cat’s Corner” came later). And by the mid-30s, the next generation started pushing themselves into The Corner and to make Lindy Hop their own. These young dancers had names like Frankie Manning, Willa Mae Ricker, Leon James, Norma Miller, Al Minns.

They were mostly teenagers, which is important. Yes, they were Black kids, many of which lived in depressed households, but like most teenagers, they were still relatively young and carefree, and spent a lot of time playing with the dance and challenging each other to new heights. And they were the first people in the world to grow up with the Lindy Hop. They were dare-devilish, they were entertaining, and they were getting good.

A young Al Minns prepares to enter a jam circle.
A young Al Minns prepares to enter a jam circle.

Among the Savoy’s management staff was a man with a white streak in his hair notorious for his street smarts. His name was Herbert White, better known by his nickname Whitey, and with Lindy Hop groups like Shorty George’s around, he soon realized that the Lindy Hop had a great deal of potential as a stage entertainment, and the new, younger dancers had a great deal of potential as cheap labor.

With the ballroom’s permission, he started Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers, taking the young dancers under his wing. His hustling personality just so happened to make him perfect for starting a company of performance dancers. He knew how to work people off of each other, and before long he had the most talented dancers practicing hours a day at the Savoy, stealing moves from the social dancing at night, inventing new moves constantly, teaching each other their strengths, and showing off in The Corner for attention. He soon put the strong and charismatic Frankie Manning, probably his most-all-around-gifted dancer, in charge of putting together their performance numbers.

We will discuss Frankie Manning in greater detail later; however, we have to re-mention a story we discussed in the previous chapter of this history, because it deals with these teenagers taking the baton from the first generation in almost a single moment. In the mid-1930s [1936?], in a contest against Shorty George himself, Frankie Manning reportedly took his partner into a new step he had developed that mimicked one of Shorty George’s where his partner would walk him off on her back: Instead of walking his partner off on his back, however, Frankie went all the way and flipped his partner over his back. In this contest, surprising everyone, he did the first known Air Step in Lindy Hop.

The silence that followed before the crowd erupted into cheers was the sound of a dance changing forever. The very next day, Manning strutted into the ballroom to teach his air-step to the other Whitey’s dancers. They soon began making up dozens of their own air-steps, and to this day if you say “swing dancing” to an average person, they probably imagine people flipping each other in the air.

(A quick note on this air step contest: We haven’t seen any evidence to refute this story. Lindy Hop from 1935/36 doesn’t have Air Steps, Lindy Hop afterwards does, which supports Frankie’s timeline. There had still been lifts and floor acrobatics in Lindy Hop and other dances before this, and their had even been flips like Frankie’s in the more exuberant 1920s Charleston contests, but this was the first time it was recorded in Harlem Lindy Hop history, so for all intents and purposes, it was a dance-changing innovation.)

Once the first generation had moved over, Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers took off. This is the time when a specific version of Lindy Hop appeared. Harlem’s social ballroom dance Lindy Hop — a Black American dance — being born on dance floors with jam circles and from cultures with circle shouts, always had a performative nature — it was meant to be shared with its community. But with air-steps, and the other performance refinements Whitey’s dancers would soon bring to the dance, a new performance-oriented version of Lindy Hop was born.

It only helped that, starting in 1935, New York’s biggest dance contest started a Lindy Hop division.

The Harvest Moon Ball took place in Madison Square Garden and was a night full of waltz, rumba, tango, and other dances. In the first Lindy Hop division, Whitey’s Lindy Hopper Leon James and Edith Mathews broke every rule in the contest and took first place. And all the Harlem Lindy Hoppers stole the show. For every year after the Lindy Hop division was the crowd favorite, and the contest quickly became an all-out throw-down of air-steps, breath-catching moves, and choreographed shenanigans. Seeing the opportunity of such great press, and feeling a great deal of pride for his ballroom and his team, Whitey made it a goal to have his couples win the Harvest Moon Ball Lindy Hop competition — all placements — as much as possible, which they always fought hard for.

The Silent Majority


The Whitey’s performance Lindy Hop was wowing audiences all over the world. But Lindy Hop started off as a social dance, and for most Lindy Hoppers in Harlem, even some of its greatest performers like Frankie Manning, it was still first and foremost a social dance.

A night at the Savoy would go like this: Everyone would get dressed up to the nines. (This was very important in Harlem culture.) Upon entering the ballroom, they would take the stairs to the second story, where two bandstands stood side by side. One band would start playing right when the other band stopped playing a set, giving the room continuous live music. The dance floor was only about a third of the space; the rest was chairs, bars, and booths; the Savoy was a social club. Lots of people talking, drinking, flirting, laughing, having an evening out. Lines of famously attractive “taxi dancer” hostesses waited for men to purchase dances with them. Busses of tourists would go around Harlem and a few would get off at the Savoy to watch the dancing. White Jewish and Italian teenagers from all over the city and Jersey would  make pilgrimages to the ballroom. In the booths, celebrities could often be seen. Clark Gable was a frequent visitor.

The band would play a variety of songs — a few ballads and waltzes, but mostly swing. During the ballads, everyone would do simple slow dancing, or ballroomin’. The dirtier “slow drag” would usually be reserved for rent parties or later at night. (There’s a rich history to those slower Blues dances as well, but I will leave that up to those much more knowledgeable about the subject.) During the fastest swing songs, some daring souls might attempt to Lindy Hop, but most would do a walking dance called The Peabody or Swing Walk that would travel around the floor. Some people would race. (The long, thin ballroom floor surrounded on 3 sides by seats, and the sight of Peabody dances and racing, are what inspired one of the ballroom’s nicknames, “The Track.”)

Many people would go to the club to watch the “wild” Lindy Hoppers. Once again, Whitey knew what he was doing — he had Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers dance along the edges of the ballroom and The Corner and show off, or he would send them to dance close to the celebrities in their booths — advertising for the performance group. Most people who socially danced Lindy Hop at the Savoy Ballroom only knew a few “steps” — they didn’t need to know more, cause they danced the shit out of those steps. (The modern intermediate dancer probably knows two or three times as many steps as the majority of the 1930’s Harlem Lindy Hopper.)

The Whitey’s Hit Hollywood

In 1936, Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers had gigs in dance revues all over town. Frankie Manning headed Whitey’s top troupe at the Apollo, which was the sign that someone had “made it” in Black entertainment. It was during this time that Whitey got called by Hollywood for the first time, and he sent a troupe to perform in the Marx Brothers’ A Day At The Races.

Two quick things about this performance a geek Lindy Hopper should know:

1 — Norma Miller and Leon James are the second couple. Norma passed away in 2019 , but she was a strong presence in the the modern swing dance scene, travelling and teaching and doing talks and helping guide it, especially after Frankie Manning’s passing. Leon’s the leader mentioned above, who broke all the rules in the 1935 Harvest Moon Ball Championship and won. He was considered one of the showiest Lindy Hoppers in history and one of its greatest male stylists.

2 — The leader who does the awesome slide is named Snookie (a term that meant “sweetie”) Beasely, and that move is called his “lock-up.” Frankie talked about how they all tried and tried, but no one could ever do it as well as he could.

Most modern viewers can tell that, despite the beauty of these performances, the racial ideas of America made a mark on the performance. When the Whitey’s performed for major films, they were not showcased in their professional performance outfits, nor in the suits and dresses they danced in at the Savoy, but in the stereotypes of the time — Black Americans as farm hands or later, servant staff. Sadly, as we shall see, their two most-watched performances (this one and Hellzapoppin) will not showcase them the way they would have preferred. It didn’t however, stop them from getting the energy and beauty of the greatest performances of Lindy Hop on film.

The Whitey’s would do a lot more over the next five years, including tours all over the world, where they would even perform for and shake hands with royalty, which were unimaginable opportunities for a group of mostly low-income Black teenagers from this era. Norma Miller was even one of the first people ever on television when she danced for a camera at the World’s Fair in 1939.

With the success of his first troupes, Whitey began making the Savoy a factory producing dozens of couples from teenagers all over the neighborhood, including a White Jewish couple and a White dancer named Jimmy Valentine who only had one leg. Whitey’s factory began to annoy his top dancers, as Whitey was basically giving the new, lesser experienced dancers all of the original group’s hard-developed material. Coupled with Whitey’s low pay and shady character, Whitey was losing a lot of trust.

During those five years, the top troupe did a few more movies and film shoots, but two of the films stand out for their importance:

In 1938 the Whitey’s did two choreographies for the film Keep Punching. The first was some simple jam dancing for a “contest:”

Here’s what’s important about this footage: sneakers. Simple Keds had been around for over a decade, but here for the first time, some of the Whitey’s are using them to perform in. (In photographs of the group performing from 1938 and before, they are all wearing hard leather shoes. However, in pictures afterward, there are more and more sneakers, until the leaders especially almost exclusively wear sneakers by the early 40s.)

Perhaps it was because they used them when practicing air-steps, or perhaps it’s just because they were teenagers and they liked wearing sneakers, or a combination of these and other factors, but this began to change the dance — sneakers allowed for more purchase but less pivoting, and so the dancing became more linear, more “stretchy,” more athletic. Less slipping meant they could dance cleaner at higher speeds. More cushioning meant they could do more air-steps safely. And it meant performance Lindy Hop was beginning to separate even more from social Lindy Hop. (A telling story occurs in Maclom X’s autobiography, where he talks about his younger days as a Lindy Hopper: When at a social dance, his partner would change out of her heels and into sneakers for the dance contest.)

Another important thing was that teenage women were wearing shorter skirts now that stopped right above the knee rather than below it. This also allowed for easier air-steps and more athletic dancing from the followers.

The second choreography the Whitey’s did for Keep Punching was The Big Apple. Whitey had heard about a popular new dance craze being done at a club called “The Big Apple” in South Carolina (which is currently owned by a Lindy Hopper, by the way). The dance was simple — people stand in a circle and do solo dance steps that someone calls out. Whitey described it to Frankie, who created a choreography based on the idea — which is now a favorite group solo-jazz choreography in the modern dance scene.

The final, and most important, choreography in Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers career came in 1941, for an otherwise strange and silly movie called Hellzapoppin’. Frankie, the artistic director for this performance, was looking to take the group’s exhibition to the next level. Choosing Whitey’s best available couples, he put them on a regimented practice schedule, and when the time came to perform the routine for cameras, he asked them to do it at a breakneck speed. The result is the group’s masterpiece.

You can tell what a difference the years of practice and refinement had made in the five years since Day At The Races — the dancing in Hellzapoppin’ is more efficient in its mechanics, more precise in its execution, and with a much greater number of air steps that were now more powerful and impressive. (Not to by any means knock the still-incredible dancing of their younger work.) And yet they both still showcase the great joy of swing dancing, which thankfully the Whitey’s never lost.

The dancers also saw a lot of change in themselves. They had gone from being “raggedy kids” in the showbiz world to being a well-honed professional act. In doing so, many of them became disillusioned with Whitey, feeling he had blatantly exploited them. Even had Pearl Harbor not been bombed in 1941, thus bringing America into a war which would draft most of the Whitey’s men into service, the group’s top dancers probably would not have stuck around much longer.

But, by 1943, many of Whitey’s men were in the military, and the troupe was more or less no more. And with it, Harlem would have to wait until after the war before a new generation would grow up at Savoy and take the reins of Lindy Hop.


Further Reading & Viewing

Norma Miller, “Swingin’ at the Savoy.”

Frankie Manning and Cynthia R. Millman, “Frankie Manning: Ambassador of Lindy Hop.”

Norma Miller Interview & Videos: Lindy Hop & Swing on Film
Norma Miller Interview & Videos: Growing Up Next to the Savoy

Marshall and Jean Stearns, “Jazz Dance.”

Jazz: A film by Ken Burns, [Episodes 1-6 ].

Special thanks to Nathan Bugh for his insight into some aspects of this article.

20 responses to “Swing History 101: The Golden Age of Harlem Lindy Hop (1935-1942)”

  1. This is a terrific piece, Bobby. Two things come to mind that I heard from Frankie. Characteristically, Frankie would say that “the Lindy Hop was not only fun to do, it was even fun to watch.” He never stopped enjoying it and insisted that the performers who worked with him keep up regular social dancing — he could really see the difference. The other thing is that he mentioned that the dancers in the Keep Punching Big Apple scene in their t-shirts were rounded up from their practice in the daytime at the Savoy and taken to Astoria to do “something.” They didn’t have time to change into their nice clothes. With that clip, and even with the famous Hellzapoppin’ clip, the dancers had no sense of “posterity.” They were simply having the time of their lives!

  2. Such an awesome article! I would like to point out that The Big Apple dance club is in Columbia, SC, not North Carolina! It was purchased by veteran Lindy Hoppers in 2015 to protect the site’s rich history! ihttp://www.thestate.com/news/local/article34266294.html

  3. Hello Bobby, thanks for your work! Great site!
    This time a question from Switzerland, the 2nd best Country in the world :-)
    I really love movies like American Graffiti with fast music but especially with the slow ones.
    WCS is perfect for these tracks combining emotion and style.

    I wonder about the foot work they used to dance WCS in these days. It seems much faster and very similar to Jitterbug and Lindy these days. But there are also some very specific characteristics in style and foot work that realy made WCS out of it.
    Would appreciate some hints re videos and style characteristics that where used these days.

    Cheers, Martin

  4. Hi Bobby. If you don’t mind my criticism (rooted in a very undemeaning intention), I’d like to raise the issue of the lack of socio-economic context in the lindy hop history narratives that you are participating in. We are gaining more and more detailed insights about the Savoy, from different perspectives thanks to later and more recent research in history, musicology and political science. It’s nothing less than great. But in an accessible publication like yours, in my opinion, issues of struggles and prejudices should remain an important piece of information to describe the dance, because it was an integral part of the story that everyone can understand. When you say, for example: “They were mostly teenagers, which is important. They were young and carefree and had plenty of free time to practice and play with the dance. They dressed and acted like teenagers”, I can’t help myself but cringe. It is upsetting, because to me, this is exactly the kind of narrative that erases the multidimensionality of cultures rooted in blackness, and underrates the actual power and uniqueness of the Savoy dancers’ achievements, wherever they came from or looked like. You cannot understand the joy of the Savoy if you ignore the struggles of its participants. And by erasing the differences and particularities of the time, you also facilitate a sense of equivalence between the Harlem Renaissance and the modern “revival of interest in swing” that took place within a majority of white people. There is no possible equivalence between those two eras or those two sociopolitical standpoints, and we should remember that. Frankie Manning didn’t practice and dance because he was young and carefree. At the time, and in the socio-economic conditions that him and his family were living in, teenagers worked to help the family bring food on the table. And because he was black and because of the economic depression, he couldn’t find any job and he didn’t have anything else to do. And so the Savoy became his home. You can find those testimonials in his autobiography and in Norma’s. So it’s not an information limited to academic researches. Frankie was extremely generous and gentle in teaching his dance, language and values. He didn’t have to prove anything or make a political case out of what he is and represents. It was still visible in his teaching for the people who were able to see and appreciate his invaluable humanity. That was his wisdom. Norma was less comforting and had a much more confronting and controversial discourse. Maybe a bit less now. Although I greatly appreciate her commitment to her cause. I believe this is actually our job and our responsibility to do the work and know where we come from, and where this story is situated in the greater historical movements of our time. And as the valuable narrator that you are Bobby, I wish you’d put more emphasis in the excellence and finesse of the Savoy from the very conditions they were liberating themselves from and were able nonetheless to bring the Lindy hop and jazz dance on the map of the greatest American cultural production.

    • Forgive me that it has taken so long to respond to this comment; It deserved to be answered a lot earlier. I’ve just been slammed with work.

      The way you have written your response has made it difficult to follow some of your arguments and what you are trying to say. I think I have gotten the gist, but I might have misinterpreted what you were saying in some of my responses.

      I will say, firstly, you are correct that I should have had more details on the socio-economic culture of Harlem and the Whitey’s at the time. I have updated the article accordingly, and I thank you for pointing out what now appears to be a strange omission.

      However, I will not go so far as to interpret the consequences of that Socio-Economic culture as much as you seem to think I should, for several reasons.

      First off, the main goal of this beginner’s history to the dance is to paint a picture with facts, and allow the multitudes of interpretation those facts can inspire rather than constrict it to my own, except in places I was sure of my interpretation as being worth noting.

      Where I did make interpretations, I have arguments for why.

      For instance, you responded to my stating the teenagers were young and carefree by saying:

      Frankie Manning didn’t practice and dance because he was young and carefree. At the time, and in the socio-economic conditions that him and his family were living in, teenagers worked to help the family bring food on the table. And because he was black and because of the economic depression, he couldn’t find any job and he didn’t have anything else to do.

      First off, I need to correct you on your facts about Frankie’s work life. In her book, Norma Miller talked about how all the kids got summer jobs. Frankie Manning himself as a teenager had several jobs at once even to not just help out the family but to also get pocket change. He finally settled on a well-paying apprenticeship as a furrier, and he was planning on making it his living. He chose to go to dance performance full-time when he realized it was possible to do so. I never remember him saying he had problems finding work.

      Secondly, I made my statement based on evidence: Yes, many of them were low-income, perhaps more than a few were even impoverished. Yes, they were socially oppressed by America in general, though that effect on a teenager is more complicated when they grew up in a mostly-Black neighborhood.

      But I stand by the statement that were still teenagers, they were still relatively carefree. Frankie Manning talks about going around Harlem, getting into fights because he shows up to parties and dances with other guys’ girlfriends. If I recall correctly, he liked to run around and jump from roof top to roof top. When he wasn’t dancing, he loved playing any kind of sport he could. The dancers themselves loved to sit around and talk about music all the time. At one point, it was mentioned Leon James would strut around the ballroom in riding joppers. Norma Miller played hookie, lied to her mom to go to dance gigs, and was glad to not have to get a summer job because all she wanted to do was dance. Every single one of them risked their bodies and lives making up dozens of crazy air-steps.

      Basically, all of this is just to say that, probably unlike the adults who supported them, I have never gotten the idea they were walking around with the burden of poverty and oppression at this point in their lives. And I whole-heartedly stand by the fact that their teenager-ness was VITAL to how they grew the dance.

      I’d also caution you against simplifying narratives yourself — you made a blanket statement that Frankie Manning was poor and couldn’t find work and didn’t have anything else to do, based on a simplified concept of the socio-economics of his time/place. Yet in reality he never had problem finding work I know of, he had a well-paying job with a good future he knowingly gave up for dancing, and had plenty of things he could occupy his time with.

      Again, I understand his family was low-income and he was growing up in a country that oppressed his race, and this undoubtedly had many consequences in his life, but as you can see those consequences weren’t “He was poor, couldn’t find work, and didn’t have anything else to do.”

      Another thing I am wary of is that giving too much attention to socio-economics can take away attention from, in my opinion, more important aspects of their accomplishments. After all, the main thing that made the Whitey’s prosper in their art form, compared to all the other countless Black Americans working hard at their jobs/art across America, was the luck of having a street-smart/exploitive business manager, and on top of that, doing something that would become a huge trend, and be immortalized on film — some of which was the exploitation of the new Black-American craze. (I added a comment on that in the article inspired by your comment.) And so I prefer to concentrate on the factors that played to me the most important roles in them developing Lindy Hop: Their location in the hot spot of Harlem, their leadership, and, of course, their own dedication and creativity, which is theirs alone.

      So, in a nutshell — I have taken your criticism and decided to include more socio-economic facts to paint a more realistic picture of Harlem. However, the interpretation game I feel is very tricky business, not to mention misleading in its own way.

      I appreciate your feedback, thanks for helping keep Swungover real.

      • Hi Bobby,
        I apologize for the lack of clarity in my first comments. It must be due to the fact that English is not my first language.
        To specify some of elements, I did not carelessly made the assumption that Frankie was poor and couldn’t find a job. He says it himself in his autobiography that the Great Depression “didn’t make that much difference to my family since we were poor anyway” and that the Savoy was « an outlet for people because there wasn’t much else they could do » (p. 67). And Norma says as well p. 34 of her autobiography : « Mama, being a black woman, was unable to get a steady job (…). Blacks were last to be hired, and first to be fired. Mama would got to the corners to be hired for daily domestic work, but competition for any income was stiff, and often she would take a days work for 10 cents an hour. ». She explicitly and repeatedly stated that socio-economic condition of her life in many of her public statements. And even if Frankie did find jobs, how many and what kind of options was he offered? Work was segregated. But he, as one, never complained about it. That’s who he is. But this situation is nonetheless real, and stated in many other published testimonials of African Americans living during that era, and in the greater black literature.
        That doesn’t make Frankie or Norma’s accomplishments any different from what they were, at the level of excellence, or rooted, as you say, “in their leadership, their own dedication and creativity”.
        I can easily believe or support myself the fact that Frankie’s youth was an integral part of his dancing and expression of himself, and that he didn’t live feeling the burden of his condition, however real it was. That was his strength. My point was mainly to say that saying it the way you did makes it very easy to identify with his experience and his life where, in my opinion, there is very little we can truly identify with as white contemporary dancers and consumers of the resurgence of interest in the Lindy hop. I do believe that facilitating this identification is an over simplification of what it meant to be a black teenager living in Harlem during that era and spending all his free time practicing and dancing at the Savoy, and participating in a number of competitions with cash/performance contract prices. The difference is not in essence, obviously, but in the living condition determined by his identity in its historical context. It is essential, in my opinion again, that we do acknowledge the differences, or we are playing the game of cultural appropriation. The joy of the dance, that can be felt and lived authentically from a multiplicity of standpoint, was not felt and lived the same way. And by saying that, I am merely following the footsteps of thinkers like bell hooks when she says :
        “It is a sign of white privilege to be able to « see » blackness and black culture from a standpoint where only the rich culture of opposition black people have created in resistance marks and defines us. Such a perspective enables one to ignore white supremacist domination and the hurt it inflicts via oppression, exploitation, and everyday wounds and pains. White folks who do not see Black pain never really understand the complexity of Black pleasure. And it is no wonder then that when they attempt to imitate the joy in living which they see as the « essence » of soul and blackness, their cultural productions may have an air of sham and falseness that may titillate and even move white audiences yet leave many black folks cold.” (bell hooks, “Black Looks: Race and Representation”, 1992, p.158)
        So with a bit more context to my first comments, I hope it is a little clearer this time.
        Thank you for engaging in a dialogue with me Bobby. I truly appreciate it.

  5. Purely wish to state ones article is really as amazing. This lucidity in your article is simply good and also i could believe you are an expert within this issue.

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